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Major Soils Of India
The word soil originates from the Latin word solam. Which means floor soil keeps the earth covered in a thin cover and gives the plants life with the appropriate amount of water and air. Alluvial soil is found in most (43.4%) of the land area in India and black soil, red soil and laterite soil are found in other soils.
Major Soils Of India
Major soils found in India
• Mountain soil
• black soil
• Red clay
• Laterite clay
• Desert soil
• Peat and marsh soil
• Saline and alkaline soil
Alluvial soil: – It is found on about (43.4%) area of India.
This soil expands about 1.5 million square km. Is
Alluvial soil is also called coop or muddy soil.
This is the soil brought by the rivers.
There is a lot of potash in this soil. But nitrogen phosphorus and humus are deficient.
It is of two types, first Bangar and second alluvial soil is called Bangar and new alluvial soil is called Khadar.
Alluvial soil is considered very good from the fertility point of view, crops like paddy, wheat, maize, oilseeds, pulses, potatoes etc. are grown.
Black soil: – It is found in 15% of the land area of India.
It is formed by the breaking of basalt rocks.
It contains a majority of iron, aluminum and magnesium.
The black color of this soil is due to the presence of tetaniferous magnetite and fossils.
This soil is also known as Regur soil.
Soil is the most suitable soil for cotton cultivation.
Hence, it is also called black cotton soil. In other crops wheat sorghum, millet etc. are grown.
Black soil in India is found in the western region of Gujarat Maharashtra Madhya Pradesh, the southern region of Orissa, the northern district of Karnataka, the southern and coastal region of Andhra Pradesh, the Salem Ramanathapuram Coimbatore districts of Tamil Nadu and the Bundi and Tonk districts of Rajasthan.
Red soil: – This soil expands on 18.6% of the country’s land area.
It is formed due to disintegration and segregation of rocky and metamorphic rocks as a result of climate change.
This soil is rich in silica and iron.
The red color of red clay is due to the presence of iron oxide. But yellow appears in water additive form.
It is acidic in nature. It lacks nitrogen phosphorus and humus.
This soil is often found in fertility wasteland. Cotton wheat, coarse grains are cultivated in this soil. In India, this soil is found in some parts of Maharashtra Tamil Nadu Karnataka, eastern region of Aravali in Nagaland Rajasthan, in the hilly regions of Meghalaya in the northern western districts of Chhotanagpur plateau region of West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh. Fertility of red soil is increased by using Chuna.
Laterite soil: – This soil is found on about 7% of the land area of the country. It is formed under the specific conditions resulting from gradual changes in humidity and dryness of monsoon climate. It contains a plurality of iron and silica. Is classified as laterite
Deep red laterite is rich in iron oxide and potash. Its fertility is low.
White laterite has the lowest fertility and its color is white due to kaolin.
The underground climate laterite is very fertile. Because during the rainy season, iron oxide goes down with water.
Laterite soil is most suitable for tea cultivation.
Desert soil: – These soils are found in arid and humid arid regions. These types of soils are mainly found in parts of Rajasthan, Haryana, Western Uttar Pradesh, Southern Punjab. Thus, this soil is spread over 2.85 lakh km. Due to lack of water and high temperature, these soils break down and break into sand particles. Phosphorus is found in high amounts in it but they lack fossil fuel and nitrogen.
Mountain Soils: – Its expansion is found in about 3 lakh sq km in India. It is also called forest soil.
These types of soils have spread from Kashmir to Arunachal Pradesh.
It is found in large amounts of bacteria but lacks phosphorus, potash, lime.
This soil is considered good for sev, pear and alucha etc.
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